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    ※纳米金棒的合成、性能




    纳米金棒的特性:
    X Huang, S Neretina, M A. El-Sayed. Gold Nanorods: From Synthesis and Properties to Biological and Biomedical Applications. Adv. Mater. 2009, 21, 1–31.

    shape. Reproduced with permission from [155]. C) Mechanism tor gold nanorod growth in the presence of silver ions. Ag+ is reduced to Ag0 at a metal substrate with a surface potential less than the standard reduction potential of Ag+, called silver underpotential deposition (UPD). The deposition of silver on the side {110} facet is faster than on the end {100} facets due to lower reduction potential on the {110} facet. This inhibits the nanorod growth on the side face leading to preferential growth of gold at the ends. Increasing the silver concentration results in more silver deposition on the side facet and the nanorod growth of higher aspect ratio. Further increase of the silver concentration results in the silver deposition of whole rods and thus stopping nanorod growth. Reproduced with permission from [163]. Copyright 2006 ACS.

    纳米金棒最佳尺寸:
    Mechanism for the Cellular Uptake of Targeted Gold Nanorods of De?ned Aspect Ratios (H  Yang, Z Chen, L Zhang el at. Small, 2016, 12, No. 37, 5178–5189)
    1. untargeted  nanospheres  can enter the cell more effectively than untargeted nanorods.
    2. cellular uptake is maximized at a particular AR: shorter nanorods (AR = 2) enter C166 cells more than nanospheres (AR = 1) and longer nanorods (AR = 4 or 7).



    ※生物医学领域的应用:医学成像

     
    [280] X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, M. A. El-Sayed, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128,2115.   [326] A. K. Oyelere, B. Chen, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, M. A. El-Sayed, Bioconjug. Chem. 2007, 18, 1490.
    Huang et al. [280] demonstrated that gold nanorods can be used for cancer diagnosis by using anti-EGFR antibodies that bind homogenously and predominately to cancer cells due to EGFR overexpression on such cells (Fig. 16A).

    Ding et al.[369] used dark ?eld light scattering to image and monitor the receptor-mediated uptake of nanorods into HeLa cells. Nucleus targeting and imaging have also been achieved by conjugating the nanorods to the NLS (Fig. 16B). [326]  

    gold anorods were conjugated to anti-EGFR anti-bodies enabling selective photothermal therapy due to their preferential binding nto human oral cancer cells. A CW Ti/Sappire NIR laser with a wavelength at 800 nm, overlapping with the SPR absorption maximum of the gold nanorods (aspect ratio of 3.9), was used for the photoirradiation of the cells immunolabeled with the nanorods.

    Using the trypan blue cell death staining and variable laser energies, they found that the cancer cells required half the laser energy (10 W cm-2, Fig. 18A) to be photothermally damaged as compared to the normal cells (20 W cm-2,) (Fig. 18B). In their recent studies using a mouse model, [270] the nanorods were conjugated to mPEG-SH 5000 and injected into mice both intravenously and subcutaneously.
     


    ※生物医学领域的应用:光热反应



    S Yoo, S Hong,Y Choi, J Park, Y Nam.
    Photothermal Inhibition of Neural Activity with Near-Infrared-ensitive Nanotransducers. ACS-Nano, 2014,8(8):8040–8049.   2#



    ※生物医学领域的应用:靶向治疗

    Nannan Wang,Zilong Zhao, Yifan Lv al et.
    Gold nanorod-photosensitizer conjugate with extracellular pH-driven tumor targeting ability for photothermal/photodynamic therapy. DOI: 10.1007/s12274-014-0493-0.

    Preparation of Au nanorods (AuNRs) :
    AuNRs  were  prepared  according  to  the seed-mediated  protocol  with  CTAB  as  a  template. First,  gold  seeds  were  prepared  by  rapidly  adding 0.45  mL  ice-cold  NaBH 4   (0.01  M)  to  the  mixed solution of 0.625 mL HAuCl 4  (2 mM), 1.88 mL CTAB (0.2  M)  and  1.37  mL  distilled  water,  followed  by rapid stirring for 2 min. During the stirring, the color of  the  mixture  rapidly  changed  from  bright brown-yellow  to  pale  brown-yellow,  indicating  the reduction of Au 3+  to Au. Then, the solution was kept in a water bath at 25 °C. After 2 h, this seed solution could be used in growth solution. Growth solution in a volume of 20.0 mL was prepared by mixing 4 mL HAuCl 4   (2  mM),  9.5  mL  CTAB  (0.2  M)  and  6.2  mL distilled water,  followed  by  the  addition  of 0.12  mL AgNO 3   (0.01  M)  and  0.128  mL  AA  (0.1  M).  Upon adding  and  mixing  AA,  the  color  of  the  mixed solution  immediately  changed  to  colorless  from bright brown-yellow. Finally, 0.086 mL of as-prepared gold seeds solution was added to the above solution and  stirred  vigorously  for  10  min,  with  the  color gradually  becoming  dark  pink.  The  mixed  solution was  left  undisturbed  overnight  for  further  growth. The  UV-vis  spectrum  of  as-synthesized  AuNRs  was monitored using a UV spectrophotometer (UV-2450, Shimadzu). The size of AuNRs was analyzed with a JEOL  JEM-2100F  transmission  electron  microscope. The  concentration  of  AuNRs  was  calculated according to a previous report [42].

    [42]  Zhou,  R.;  Zhou,  H.  Y.;  Xiong,  B.;  He,  Y.;  Yeung,  E.  S.; Pericellular  matrix  enhances  retention  and  cellular  uptake  of nanoparticles, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 13404-13409.  
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